Formal meetings of elected representatives were suspended during the height of the epidemic due to the chaotic conditions in the city, but a small group of officials was appointed to conduct the affairs of the city, which ensured continuity of government.
Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Iberia and Sicilywhich became important centers for this transmission of ideas. Well after the first artistic return to classicism had been exemplified in the sculpture of Nicola PisanoFlorentine painters led by Masaccio strove to portray the human form realistically, developing techniques to render perspective and light more naturally.
Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, and why it began when it did.
For example, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi applied the elements of classical Roman architecture—shapes, columns and especially proportion—to his own buildings. Some scholars, such as Rodney Stark play down the Renaissance in favor of the earlier innovations of the Italian city-states in the High Middle Ageswhich married responsive government, Christianity and the birth of capitalism.
Portrait of a Young Woman c. This work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history. Artists used perspective to create the illusion that the subjects of the paintings had three dimensions, making some objects appear to be further away than others.
By the later s, the Mannerist style, with its emphasis on artificiality, had developed in opposition to the idealized naturalism of High Renaissance art, and Mannerism spread from Florence and Rome to become the dominant style in Europe.
Much of the art produced during the early Renaissance was commissioned by the wealthy merchant families of Florence, most notably the Medici. Moving on up the chain, each succeeding link contains the positive attributes of the previous link, and adds at least to one other.
Today, they are viewed as great works of art, but at the time they were seen and used mostly as devotional objects. Renaissance art continued to be celebrated, however: With the Protestant Reformation in motion, the Catholic Church did not stand idly by.
The Italian Renaissance was over. Many aspects of culture underwent change including art, philosophy, and science. In response, the Catholic Church began a series of changes and actions in retaliation to the Protestant Reformation. Figures in paintings and sculptures were created to more closely resemble what real people might look like or the ideal of the human figure.
This analysis argues that, whereas the great European states France and Spain were absolutist monarchies, and others were under direct Church control, the independent city republics of Italy took over the principles of capitalism invented on monastic estates and set off a vast unprecedented commercial revolution that preceded and financed the Renaissance.
Likewise, the scientist and mathematician Galileo Galilei investigated one natural law after another. Early Renaissance Art s In the later 14th century, the proto-Renaissance was stifled by plague and war, and its influences did not emerge again until the first years of the next century.
Later, many painters began to use a technique called chiaroscuro to create an illusion of three-dimensional space on a flat canvas. The other major artist working during this period was the painter Masaccioknown for his frescoes of the Trinity in the Church of Santa Maria Novella c.
Michelangelo Buonarroti drew on the human body for inspiration and created works on a vast scale.
A critical contribution to Italian Renaissance humanism Giovanni Pico della Mirandola wrote the famous text "De hominis dignitate" Oration on the Dignity of Man, which consists of a series of theses on philosophy, natural thought, faith and magic defended against any opponent on the grounds of reason.
Skinner reports that there were many defences of liberty such as the Matteo Palmieri — celebration of Florentine genius not only in art, sculpture and architecture, but "the remarkable efflorescence of moral, social and political philosophy that occurred in Florence at the same time".
In these conditions a bad harvest almost immediately led to famine. His frescoes were said to have decorated cathedrals at Assisi, Rome, Padua, Florence and Naples, though there has been difficulty attributing such works with certainty.Social and Economic Changes During the Renaissance.
Cities grew and prospered during the Renaissance and rulers learned to tax the people. Trade grew between cities/states and other countries. As trade in goods increased, trade in ideas grew also.
The contact between cultures was in some part due to the Crusades during the 11th century. Religious Change The Renaissance was the birthing period of religious reform. Moreover it was a celebration of human achievement and proceeded to spur on the development of art, language, and exploration.
Martin Luther Martin Luther, one of the most notable reformers in history, was one of the key reformers during the Renaissance. Though the Catholic Church remained a major patron of the arts during the Renaissance–from popes and other prelates to convents, monasteries and other religious organizations–works of art were increasingly commissioned by civil government, courts and wealthy individuals.
During the Renaissance the demands of society shifted and became based on money instead of allegiances. The church had a difficult time adjusting to this new way of thinking.
For example, the parish priests and monks had long served as the religious teachers of the peasants, but as the commercial class began to grow, the priests found that they knew very little about the needs of this new class of people.
The majority of the European population in the Renaissance was, like at many other times in history, made of the common folk. They, however, had a slightly new place in society in the Renaissance because serfdom had just fallen out of regular practice.
During the Renaissance, there was an immense change with people’s beliefs about religion.
Shortly after the Plague, individuals began to realise that religion was not a key point, or factor to life.Download